Studies on Entrepreneurship Development for Graduate in Maiduguri Borno State: Implication for Counselling Strategies By Umar Goni NCE, B. ED. & M. ED. (Asst. Lecturer) Department of Education University of Maiduguri [email protected] com, Umara Mustapha NCE, B. A. ED. & M. ED. (Chief Tutor) Department of Education University of Maiduguri and Ali Mburza B. A. ED. M. ED & PhD Department of Education University of Maiduguri [email protected] com Abstract This is an empirical study designed to investigate entrepreneurship development for graduates in Maiduguri Borno State: Implications for counselling strategies.
Four research objectives were set and four research questions were answered in this study. A survey method was employed, an instrument tagged Entrepreneurship Development Among Youths in Borno State Questionnaire (SEDAYQ) was developed and validated by the researchers, the questionnaire elicit information on youths ability and inability to become entrepreneurs. The questionnaire also elicit information on age, personal background, educational level, moral support, family background and personal experience in the area of interest, data were analyzed using frequency count nd percentages. The findings of study revealed types of entrepreneurship engaged by youths in Borno State, Causes of youths’ engagement in entrepreneurship, Government role in assisting entrepreneurs and Problems encountered by the graduates in entrepreneurship. Counselling strategies were also provided to graduates, government and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) on how to develop, assist and improve entrepreneurship among Borno State graduates and to become self reliant in the society. Key Words: Entrepreneurship, Development, Graduates & Counselling Strategies Introduction
The idea of Entrepreneurship is not new in Nigeria; it had existed even before the coming of the colonial masters. The prominence being gained by entrepreneurship in the present time is borne out of the need to address the octopus called unemployment which is facing our society; entrepreneurship is associated with different kinds of activities that have to do with the establishment of business enterprises. Such activities may include identification of investment opportunities, deciding what opportunities to exploit for profit, promotion and establishment of business enterprise.
Others include pooling of various resources needed for production and distribution of goods and services, organization and management of human and materials resources for the attainment of the objectives of the enterprise, as well as risk bearing and innovation. Thus the effective performance of the above activities is very vital to start, growth and survival of any business enterprise. Entrepreneurship is a significant factor in the process of the economic development of any nation like Nigeria.
Entrepreneurial development is meant to facilitate enterprise development and skill acquisition in order to reduce dependence on the existing employment market. It also entails the objective of motivating the individual to explore the possibility of exploiting the abundant resources in this country as entrepreneur. No wonder governments, nongovernmental organization, companies, humanitarians and individuals are now interested in empowering the people to create Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SME).
This increased interest has been fostered by such factors in recognition that small firms play a major role in job creation and innovation as well as a vehicle for social and economic development and dependence on government (Ihekwoaba, 2007) There are two sources of funds to take up an entrepreneurship; they are internal and external sources. The internal source refers to the entrepreneur’s private sources such as personal saving and family and friend’s contributions.
On the other hand, the external source refers to borrowed funds from the formal sector such as the wealthy individual, Banks, loan from cooperative societies, government investment cooperation and capital market. Entrepreneurship according to Chambers 20th Centaury Dictionary (1985), the root word to entrepreneurship is an undertaking. On the other hand, an ‘entrepreneur’ is referred to as the individual who undertakes an enterprise especially a commercial one often at a personal risk.
Entrepreneurship according to Timmons (2006) is the process of bringing together creative and innovative ideas and coupling these with management, organization and skills in order to combine man, money machineries and other resources to meet an identified need thereby creating wealth. Hirsch and Peters (2005) sees entrepreneurship as the process of creating something new and with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, assuming the accompanying financial, physic and social risks and receiving the resulting rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction and independence.
From the above definition it can be inferred that entrepreneurship is an initiative, imagination, flexibility, creativity and the willingness to think conceptually and capacity to see change as an opportunity. Entrepreneurship therefore, involves the identification and exploitation of opportunities to innovate. Bridge, Neil & Cromic (2003) postulated that entrepreneurship is the willingness and ability of an Individual or group of persons to search for investment opportunities, establish and run a business successfully.
In other words, entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new business in response to identified opportunities. Statement of the Problem Nigerian school leavers have low achievement motivation and risk taking behaviour. They do not invest independently to achieve success in personally determined ventures; rather they roam about seeking for employment on already flourishing organizations. Graduates of Universities and indeed tertiary institutions loiter around for several years without setting up a business of their own.
Today, not only graduates of tertiary institutions in Maiduguri foraged the State capital (Maiduguri) in search of employment, but graduates from other sister States all over the country. This makes it necessary to look into how this predicament will be reduced or completely eliminated. It is a well known fact that both local and State governments in Borno have not employed graduates of all categories in the State for long. Hence these unemployed graduates parade themselves in the State in search of unavailable white collar jobs. Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study were to determine the following: 1-Types of entrepreneurship engaged in by graduates in Borno State 2-Causes of youths’ engagement in entrepreneurship in Borno State 3-Government assistance to graduates entrepreneurs in Borno State 4-Problems encountered by graduate entrepreneurs in Borno State Research Questions The following questions were answered in this study: 1. What are the types of entrepreneurship engaged in by graduates in Borno State? 2. What are the causes of youths’ engagement in entrepreneurship in Borno State? 3. Does government provide assistance to graduate entrepreneurs in Borno State? . What are the problems encountered by graduate entrepreneurs in Borno State? Methodology A survey method was employed in this study, an instrument tagged Entrepreneurship Development Among Youths in Borno State Questionnaire (EDAYQ) was develop and validated by the researchers, the questionnaire elicit information on youths ability and inability to become entrepreneurs. The questionnaire also elicits information on age, personal background, educational level, support, family background and personal experience in the area of interest. The target population for the study was the entire youths in Borno State.
However, eight hundred and eighty nine were sampled for this study. Purposive and Volunteer sampling techniques were used to select the samples. Only youths who are graduates and were engaged in entrepreneurship and s have volunteered to fill in the questionnaire were used. Data was analyzed using frequency counts and percentages. Results and Discussion Research Question One: What are the types of entrepreneurship engaged in by graduates in Borno State? Table 1: Types of Entrepreneurship Engaged in by Youths in Borno State by Gender Types of EntrepreneurshipFrequencyMale PercentagesFemalePercentages Cap making and washing 39283. 4 111. 23 Petty trading 138647. 19 748. 32 Road side mechanics 10310311. 58– Driving 12612614. 17– Dying13050. 56 080. 89 Gold/black smithing16161. 79 – Live stock/fish farming 41202. 24212. 36 Dry cleaning48485. 39– Barbing /hairdressing 80202. 24606. 79 Vulcanizing26262. 92– Food selling24040. 44 202. 24 Bricklaying 06060. 67– Key cutting 07070. 78– D. V. D plate sales/ recording03020. 22 010. 11 Recharge cards/news paper vending14101. 12 040. 44 Welding21212. 36– Table one shows the types of entrepreneurship engaged in by youths in Borno State.
From the sixteen entrepreneurship programmes expressed by the respondents, it is evident to see that more males engage in driving and road side mechanics while the females engage in petty trading and hair dressing. It is also evident from the findings of this study that the entrepreneurships programmes are stereotype in nature this is because no female graduate participated in entrepreneurship programmes such as road side mechanics, driving, gold/black smithing dry cleaning, vulcanizing, bricklaying, key cutting and welding. These entrepreneurships are traditionally seen as male oriented occupations.
Research Question Two: What are the causes of youths’ engagement in entrepreneurship in Borno State? Table 2: Causes of Youths’ Engagement in Entrepreneurship in Borno State Causes FrequencyMale PercentagesFemale Percentages Poverty 2921301. 6216218. 22 Unemployment 50835239. 5915617. 54 Pressure from parents 89232. 58667. 42 Table 2 revealed unemployment, poverty and pressure from parents as the reasons for the youths’ engagement in entrepreneurship programmes in Borno State. None of the respondents indicated personal interest in the programmes.
This is an indication that the youths are forced by circumstances for engaging in the entrepreneurships. Research Question Three: Does government provide assistance to graduate entrepreneurs in Borno State? Table 3: Government Assistance to Graduate Entrepreneurs in Borno State Assistance FrequencyMale PercentagesFemale Percentages Provided 00– — Not Provided 88950556. 80 38443. 19 Table three shows that out of the 889 (505 males and 384 females) youths that participated in this study none of them indicated that they have received any assistance from the government in establishing the entrepreneurship they engage in.
This is unhealthy for youth development and national development. Research Question Four: What are the problems encountered by graduate entrepreneurs in Borno State? Table 4: Problems Encountered by Graduate Entrepreneurs in Borno State Problem FrequencyMale PercentagesFemale Percentages Lack of Capital40120122. 6120022. 49 Lack of Support112829. 22303. 37 Rent Problem31217619. 7913615. 29 Lack of Electricity 53455. 06080. 89 No Problem11010. 11101. 12% Table four shows that lack of capital, lack of support, rent problem and lack of electricity as the problems they face in running the entrepreneurship they have established.
Only 11(1 male and 10 females) revealed that they had no problem in establishing their entrepreneurship. Counselling Strategies -Youths should be encouraged to establish small scale businesses which will make them self employed instead of waiting for white collar jobs which are not forth coming. This could be done through assisting the youths with soft loans. -Youths should also be encouraged through counselling to develop personal interest in entrepreneurship programmes not necessarily get involved only when they are pushed to the world by unemployment as was the case in this study. Governments at all levels should endeavour to assist youths who are interested in establishing their own businesses by subsidizing electricity and shop charges. The government official could be reached through workshop and seminars. Recommendations Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made: 1. From the entrepreneurship programmes indicated by the youths in this study, it is evident that the youths’ exposure for entrepreneurship is too limited. Thus, they should be encouraged to explore more entrepreneurship programmes that would demand less capital to start.
This could be done through mounting of campaigns on radio and television. 2. Government and Non governmental Organizations should assist youths with soft capital to establish their sown Business. 3. Borno State government should establish Entrepreneurship Board which should take charge of assisting youths with revolving capital to establish their own Business. 4. Government and private organizations should establish companies and industries where youths should be employed after graduation. References Bridge, S. O. Neil, K. Cromic, S. (2003). Understanding enterprise, Entrepreneurship and Small- Business. London: Palgrave Chambers 20th Century Dictionary (1985). England : Pearson Education Limited Hirsch, R. D. and Peters, M. P. (2005). Entrepreneurship, New Delhi: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Ihekwoaba, M. (2007). Entrepreneurship in vocational technical education, Lagos: Mukugamu Brother Enterprises Timmons, J. (2006). What is entrepreneurship, Colinbus USA Retrieved from www. entre-ed. org 22nd August 2010.